Carlos Morra and Ernst Franzek: Psychopathological Symptoms



Definition: Resistance to passive movement that is proportional to the intensity of the force. The resistance seems to be more automatic than voluntary (Bush et al 1996).


Exploration: The patient’s hand is held like in a handshake while the patient is instructed: “Leave your arm loose”. Then the patient’s arm is moved horizontally from backward to forward with alternating gentle to intense force (Fink and Taylor 2003). The symptom is present when there is resistance to movement, with an about equal force to the examiner’s.




Bush G, Fink M, Petrides G, Dowling F, Francis A. Catatonia: I rating scale and standarized examination. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996; 93:129-36.

Fink M, Taylor MA. Catatonia. A clinician´s guide to diagnosis and treatment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2003.


Carlos Morra and Ernst Franzek

September 15, 2016