Thomas A. Ban
Neuropsychopharmacology in Historical Perspective

Psychopharmacology and the Classification of Functional Psychoses


Preface (circa 1985) and Recommended Reading


Preface (circa 1985)


       This    monograph   is   based   on   the   contention that psychopathology-based diagnoses derived by psychiatric nosology are essential prerequisites for interpretable findings of research in mental illness and for progress in their treatment.    

       In this monograph diagnoses which fulfill these requirements are proposed for a group of psychiatric illnesses that was traditionally referred to as “functional psychoses.”

       To present the information in historical perspective, contributions from Henri Baruk, Gaetan de Clerambault, Karl Jaspers, Karl Kahlbaum, Karl Kleist, Emil Kraepelin, Valentim Magnan, Kurt Schneider, Eric Strömgren, Carl Wernicke, August Wimmer and many others were considered.  Yet, central to this monograph is Karl Leonhard’s Classification of Endogenous Psychoses, published first in 1957, as it was the first classification which seemed to provide some pharmacologically sufficiently homogeneous populations of mental illness that fulfill the clinical prerequisite of neuropsychopharmacological research.

       In the preparation of different sections in this monograph publications by Peter Berner, Samuel Guze, Frank Fish, Max Hamilton, Hanfried Helmchen, Assen Jablensky, Pierre Pichot, Eli Robins, Norman Sartorius, Robert Spitzer and John Wing were helpful. The accuracy of some of the information presented was improved through personal communications with Carlo Perris and George Winokur.

       I am grateful to William Guy, Jean-Francois Dreyfus, Michael Ebert, Jan Hoenig and  Heinz Edgar Lehmann for their recommendations to improve text and would like to express my appreciation to Marc Hollender for reading and commenting on the manuscript in various stages of its development.

       I am thankful to Mrs. Mildred Harrington for her secretarial assistance for typing and retyping the text in various stages of its development.


Recommended Reading


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Edition. Washington: APA; 1980. 

Andreasen NC, Winokur J. Newer experimental methods for classifying depression. A report from the NIMH Collaborative Pilot Study. Arch Ge. Psychiatry, 1979;36:447-52.  

Astrachan BM, Harrow M, Adler D, Brauer L, Schwartz A, Schwartz C. A checklist for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 1972;121:529-39. 

Ban TA. Schizophrenia. A Psychopharmacological Approach. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1972. 

Ban TA. Psychopharmacology of Depression. Basel, Munich, Paris, London, New York and Sydney: Karger; 1981.                           

Ban TA. Chronic schizophrenias: A guide to Leonhard's classification. Comprehensive Psychiatry,1982; 23:155-70. 

Ban TA, Guy W, Wilson WH. Description, and distribution of the subtypes of chronic schizophrenia based on Leonhard's classification. Psychiatry Dev, 1984;2(3):179-99. 

Ban TA, Guy W, Wilson WH. Pharmacotherapy of chronic hospitalized schizophrenics: diagnosis and treatment. The Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 1984;9:191-5. 

Berner P, Gabriel E, Katschnig H, Kieffer H, Koehler K, Lenz G, Simhandl Ch. Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenic and Affective Disorders. World Psychiatric Association;1983. 

Berner P, Katschnig S. Principles of "multi-axial classification in psychiatry as a basis of modern methodology. In: Helgason T, editor. Methods in Evaluation of Psychiatric Treatment. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press;1983. 

Brockington IF, Perris C, Meltzer HY. Cycloid psychoses. Diagnosis and heuristic value. J Nerv and Ment Dis, 1982;170:651-6. 

Carpenter WT, Strauss JS, Bartko JJ. Flexible system for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Report from the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Science, 1973;182:1275-8. 

Crow TJ. Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process?  Br Med J, 1980; 280:66-8 

Cutting JC, Clare AW, Mann AH. Cycloid psychosis: an investigation of the diagnostic concept. Psychol Med, 1978;8:637-48. 

Essen-Moller A. On classification of mental disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1961;37:119-26. 

Feighner JP, Robins E, Guze SB, Woodruff RA, Winokur G, Munoz R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1972;26:57-63. 

Fish FJ. A guide to the Leonhard classification of chronic schizophrenia. Psychiat Q, 1964; 38:438-50. 

Helmchen H. Schizophrenia: Diagnostic concepts in the ICD-8. In: Lader MH, editor. Studies in Schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry Spec, 1975;10:10-18. 

Helmchen H. Multiaxial systems of classification. Types of axes. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1980;61:43-55. 

Kendell RE. The Classification of Depressive Illness. London: Oxford University Press; 1968. 

Kielholz P. Diagnostic Aspects in the Treatment of Depression. In: Kielholz P, editor. Depressive Illness. Diagnosis, Assessments, Treatment. Bern: Hans Huber; 1972.

Kiloh LG, Garside RF. The independence of neurotic depression and endogenous depression. Br J Psychiatry, 1963;109:451-63. 

Langfeldt G. The Prognosis in Schizophrenia and the Factors Influencing the Course of the Disease. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, London: Oxford University Press; 1937. 

Langfeldt G. The Schizophreniform States. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, London: Oxford University Press; 1939. 

Nadzharow RA. The clinical aspect of biological investigation of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Transactions of Symposium on Biological Research in Schizophrenia. Moscow; 1967. 

Ottosson JO, Perris C. Multi-dimensional classification of mental disorders. Psychol Med, 1973;3:238-43 

Pull MC, Pull CB, Pichot P. Empirical diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia on related non-affective psychoses in France. Paper presented at the Conference "Concepts of Schizophrenia," 4-6 October 1981, Cologne, FRG. 

Silveira A. Cerebral systems in the pathogenesis of endogenous psychoses. In: Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Psychiatry. Vol. III. Toronto and Montreal:  University of Toronto Press and McGill University Press; 1963. 

Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E. Research Diagnostic Criteria RDC for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders. 3rd Edition. New York: State Psychiatric Institute; 1978.           

Strauss JS. A comprehensive approach to psychiatric diagnosis. Am J Psychiatry, 1975;132:1193-7. 

Taylor MA, Abrams R. The prevalence of schizophrenia: A reassessment using modern diagnostic criteria. Am J Psychiat, 1978;135:945-8.

Taylor MA, Redfield J, Abrams R. Neurophysiological dysfunction in schizophrenia and affective disease. Biol Psychiatry, 1981;16:467-78. 

Wing L, Bramley C, Hailey A, Wing JK. Camberwell Cumulative Psychiatric Case Register. Part I: Time and Methods. Soc Psychiatry, 1968;3:116-23. 

Winokur G. Unipolar depression. Is it divisible into autonomous subtypes? Arch Gen Psychiatry,  1979;36:47-52. 

World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death. Based on the Recommendations of the Ninth Revision Conference, 1975 and Adopted by the Twenty-ninth World Health Assembly. Vol. I. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1977. 


April 8, 2021