Thomas: A Ban: In historical perspective. Peralta, Cuesta and their associates’ findings on the highest familiality of Leonhard’s classification in polynosologic study

 Thomas A. Ban’s reply to Ernst Franzek’s comment


Would it be correct to say that the findings in your study with Beckmann and Fritze, reported in 1992, are in keeping with the findings of Fish (1964), and your findings with Beckmann, reported in 1992 and 1998, are in keeping with the findings of Peralta and his associates (2015)? It was Fish first, in 1964, who reported on differential responsiveness to neuroleptics in the different forms and sub-forms of schizophrenia in Karl Leonhard’s (1957|) classification, and it was Peralta and his associates first, in 2015, who reported that the differences in “familiality” in the different forms and sub-forms of “psychosis” in Leonhard’s (1957) classification are greater than the differences in ”familiality” in the different forms and sub-forms  of ”psychosis” in the classifications of the World Health Organization (1992) and the American Psychiatric Association (1980).



American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Edition. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.

Beckman H, Fritze J, Franzek E. The influence of neuroleptics on specific syndromes and symptoms in schizophrenics with unfavourable long-term course. Pharmacopsychiatry  1992; 26:50-58.

Fish F. The influence of the tranquilizers on the Leonhard schizophrenic syndromes. Encephale 1964; 53: 245-9.

Franzek E, Beckmann H. Schizophrenia: Not a disease entity? A study of 57 long-term hospitalized chronic schizophrenics. European Journal of Psychiatry 1992; 6:97-108.

Franzek E, Beckmann H. Different genetic background of schizophrenic spectrum psychoses:

A twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry 1998; 155: 76 - 83.

Leonhard K.Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen.  Berlin:Akademie; 1957.

World Health Organisation. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.


Thomas A. Ban

June 30, 2016