Joseph Knoll: Enhancer Sensitive Brain Regulations and Synthetic Enhancers which Counteract the Regressive Effects of Brain Aging


Ildiko Miklya: Foreword


        Joseph Knoll, in the last year of his life, summarized the most important results of his scientific work in this book, providing evidence of the operation of the unknown enhancer regulation and presenting the characteristic effects of the enhancer substances.

        According to Knoll’s definition, the enhancer regulation drives the organism to a higher activity level on a physiological scale so it tunes a poor achievement to medium, a medium to good and a good to excellent performance, optimizing its energy system. In contrast to the exhausting effect of psychostimulants, enhancer compounds operate in a finer manner. This is confirmed by the extremely low dose effective range (nano-femtomolar concentration) of them, thus, the body adapts more easily to the new balance and the replacement of an age-decreasing endogenous enhancer level does not cause side effects.

        For example: In Parkinson’s disease, when tremor symptoms are already present, the dopamine deficiency is 60-70% in the nigrostriatal system. This is such a large deficit of the transmitter that only drugs with strong side effects can be used to relive the symptoms. Thus, the best solution is the prevention of the disease, which will be the task of the future health care, because when the characteristic symptoms of the disease already appear, there are only a few options available. However, discrepancies caused by small deficiencies of the endogenous compound can be remedied quickly in time even without side effects. One possibility for this purpose is the use of a synthetic enhancer substance.

        I can say that after 40-years’ work together, only Joseph Knoll could discover this enhancer regulation. First of all, his great knowledge saved his life when he created an inner intelligent world for himself by reciting poems to himself in the midst of horrors in a Nazi camp; he knew more than a hundred poems by heart. Moreover, in the camp he observed how the human mind can be manipulated, that is, as a healthy cultured person one becomes a “machine” within a few years after living under a cruel command.

        As a Holocaust survivor, Joseph Knoll started an extremely interesting research project with extraordinary activity. He investigated the methodologies of the central nervous system and developed, with his coworker, deprenyl, a new type of psychoenergizer. Later on, deprenyl became the first selective MAO-B inhibitor and 20 years later, as a result of Knoll’s passionate, persistent work, the first synthetic enhancer compound. To prove the enhancer regulation, he developed PPAP, a deprenyl derived, non-MAO inhibitor analogue with selective enhancer effect. In the 1990s he worked out BPAP, the third selective, but much more potent, tryptamine-derived enhancer substance in collaboration with Fujimoto Pharmaceutical Corporation. Today we know that synthetic enhancer compounds have scavenger function, neuroprotective and performance-enhancing effects, and they significantly increase the lifespan, demonstrated in animal experiments, besides the tumor-suppressing effect. I hope, one day Knoll’s idea of conducting a human longevity study will come true so that synthetic enhancers can prolong the human life span, as well by improving the quality of life.

        Joseph Knoll worked tirelessly until he was 93-years-old and would be 95 this year. The publication of this book is an honorable memorial to his life-long endeavors.

Finally, many thanks to Olaf Fjetland for his comments, suggestions and valuable editorial work.


September 30, 2020


Ildiko Miklya


October 29, 2020