Thomas A. Ban: Psychopharmacology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1969

Leon S. Morra’s Extracts - 7

Part One, Chapter Two: Animal Pharmacology


1.Rating scales

 “The ultimate goal of pharmacodynamic investigation in animals is… to predict the possible clinical usefulness of a particular drug. The various testing procedures used in this area of research are many, but essentially there are four major approaches: (1) rating scales; (2) pharmacological tests; (3) conditioning studies; and (4) attempts to establish the (a) neurochemical and (b) neurophysiological sites of action of the experimental substance.”

”Subjectively scored rating scales are used in animal pharmacological studies…Irwin’s rating scale (for the rat and mouse) consists of three major categories with which the behavioral, neurological and autonomic profiles of a chemical can be assessed.”

“…the Norton scale (for hamster, cat and monkey) consists of 25 rating scale items which are grouped into five categories: sociability, contentment, excitement, defensive hostility and aggressive hostility…”

“The Kennard scale (for cats) consists of 32 rating scale items which group into nine factors: social interaction, reaction to observer, general activity, depressive syndrome, agitation, sleep, self-care, anxiety and hostility.”

On the basis of five prototype psychotropic compounds (amphetamine, pentobarbital, imipramine, chlorpromazine and perphenazine), distinctive profiles of drugs with stimulant, sedative, antidepressant and antipsychotic properties were established which can be used for screening new potentially psychoactive drugs.” 


León S. Morra

March 23, 2017