Thomas A. Ban: Psychiatry for Neuropsychopharmacologists. 2. From Kraepelin’s manic-depressive psychosis to Leonhard’s phasic and cycloid psychoses

Thomas A. Ban’s reply to Carlos Morra’s comment


         Thank you for your comment. You are correct. The reason that I did not refer to the classification system of the American Psychiatric Association (1980, 1994, 2013) in my essay on the history of “manic depressive psychosis” was that they provided less homogenous populations at least in terms of “pharmacological responsiveness” (Fish 1964) and “familality” (Peralta et al 2015) than Karl Leonhard’s classification presented in 1957. Without separating “ bipolar manic  depressive psychosis” from the “bipolar cycloid psychoses” and “unipolar pure melancholia” and “unipolar pure mania” from the “pure depressions” and “pure euphorias”, these new  classifications are less suitable for neuropsychopharmacological and genetic research in “manic depressive psychosis” than Leonhard’s (1957)  classification.


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Third Edition  (DSM-III). Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

Fish F. The influence of the tranquilizers on the Leonhard schizophrenic syndromes. Encephale 1964; 53: 245-9.

Leonhard K. Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen. Berlin: Akademie Verlag; 1957.

Peralta V, Goldberg X, Ribeiro M, Sanches-Torres AM, Fananas L, Cuesta MJ. Familiality of psychotic disorders: A polynosologic study in multiple families. Schizophrenia Bulletin Advance Access, December 26, 2015.


Thomas A. Ban

May 19, 2016