Philip Seeman and Mary Seeman: The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia in Historical Perspective


Mary Seeman’s reply to George Awad’s comments



        Dr. Awad’s commentary touches on many important issues, among which is the growing realization that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder. Supporting the fact of heterogeneity is the observation that drugs such as clozapine that bind to a variety of neurotransmitters are clinically more effective than those that bind mainly to dopamine receptors. Also supportive are the very many DNA sites that reportedly associate with schizophrenia, making etiology increasingly elusive. Nevertheless, I suspect that the serendipidous synthesis of chlorpromazine that led to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia will remain a landmark in the eventual unraveling of the pathophysiology of the symptoms and syndromes we curretly call schizophrenia.


July 8, 2021