François Ferrero: Inquiry of the Geneva 1980’s Psychiatry Crisis: Forced Hospitalization, ETC and Sleep Therapy

David Janowsky’s response to François Ferrero’s reply


        I very much enjoyed all the comments and dialogue concerning Francois Ferrero’s essay and  Dr. Ferrero’s reply to my comment.  I will limit my comments concerning Dr. Ferrero’s reply  to one issue.   Dr. Ferrero’s last sentence reads: “Janowsky’s last paragraph is fascinating to me: How was  it possible to have such a clear understanding what was going on in the small city of Geneva?”   My answer is that  I applied the components of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Myers and McCaulley 1998), a  somewhat controversial temperament measuring device used widely in management and industry, that I have used previously to profile depressed and suicidal patients  (Janowsky, Hong, Morter and Howe 2002; Janowsky, Morter, Hong and Howe 1999).  

        The MBTI divides  temperament/personality into four dichotomies: extroversion/introversion,  sensing/intuitive, thinking/feeling and judging/perceiving. It is similar in many ways to the more popular 5-factor NEO Personality Inventory scale (MacDonald, Anderson, Tsagarakis and Holland 1994).   The MBTI  components are as follows:

        Extraverts (E) - sociability, interaction, external, breadth, extensive, gregarious, speak than think, multiple relationships, energy expenditure

        Introverts  ( I ) - territoriality, concentration, depth, intensive, energy conservation, reflective, limited relationships, internal reactions, reflective, think than speak

        Sensors (S) - direct, present, realistic, actual, down to earth, fact oriented, practical, specific

        Intuitives (N) - random, future oriented,  conceptual, inspiration, theoretical, head in clouds, fantasy, ingenuity, energy conservation

        Thinkers ( T) - objective, firm minded, law oriented, just, clarity, analytical, policy, detached, firmness

        Feelers (F) - subjective, tenderhearted, focused on  circumstances, uses persuasion, humane, harmony, appreciative, social values, involved

        Judgers ( J) - resolved, decided, fixed, control oriented, closure, planned, structure, definite, scheduled

        Perceivers (P) - pending, wait and see, flexible, adaptable, open ended, openness, flow, tentative, spontaneous, what deadline


        Given the possible combinations, there are thus 16   types  ( INFP, ENFP, ISTP, ISTJ, etc.) which represent different styles of interacting and perceiving as well as styles of management and job preferences.   For example, of 61 chemistry scientists surveyed, 0% had an ENFP profile whereas, in contrast,  16.39%  had an ISTJ profile. Of 177 rehabilitation counselors,   20.34% were ENFP types and  5.08 % were ISTJ types. Of the chemistry  scientists, 72.13% were  thinkers and 27.87% were feelers.   In contrast,  of  177  rehabilitation counselors,   only 33.33% were thinking types and 66.67% were feeling types (Myers and McCaulley 1998) .

        An abbreviated vignette  describing  the ISTJ  MBTI type was written  as follows:   “Serious, quiet, earns success by concentration and thoroughness.  Practical, orderly, matter of fact, logical, realistic and dependable. See to it that everything is well organized. Take responsibility.  Make up their own minds as to what should be accomplished and work toward it steadily, regardless of protest and distractions” (Kroeger and Thuesen 1992) .

        A vignette for the ENFP type is as follows:  “Warmly enthusiastic, high spirited, ingenious, imaginative.  Able to do almost anything that interests   them.  Quick with a solution for any difficulty and ready to help anyone with a problem.  Often relies on their ability to improvise instead of preparing in advance.  Can usually find compelling reasons for whatever they want” (Kroeger and Thuesen 1992).

        Given the contrasting job interests  and probable work styles of Dr. Tissot  versus those of Drs. Garrone and Haynal, and some of the behaviors mentioned  by Dr. Ferrero in describing these individuals,   I was able  to speculate as to their opposing personality and philosophical biases and how these could have caused clashes. 



Janowsky DS, Hong E, Morter S, Howe L.  Myers Briggs Type Indicator personality profiles in Unipolar depressed patients. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2002; 3(4):207-15.

Janowsky, DS, Morter S, Hong L, Howe L.  Myers Briggs Type Indicator and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Differences Between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed patients.  Bipolar Disord. 1999; 1(2):98-108.

MacDonald DA, Anderson PE, Tsagarakis CI, Holland CJ.  Examination of the Relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Reports. 1994; 74(1):339-44.

Myers IB, McCaulley MH. Manual:  A guide to the Development and Use of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, Calif Consulting Psychologists Press 1998.         

Kroeger O, Thuesen JM. Type Talk at Work.  New York, N.Y.: Delacorte Press, 1992.


November 21, 2019