Thomas A. Ban’s reply to Ernst Franzek’s comment

Thank you for reminding us about Phuhlmann and his associates’ findings, published in 2004 in the Journal of Affective Disorders. I hope it will help to clarify the frequently held misconception that the cycloid psychoses are an integral part of an alleged “bipolar affective spectrum”. The concept of “spectrum disorder” is contrary to the thinking of the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard tradition. In his Classification of Endogenous Psychoses, Leonhard (1957, 1979) referred to “cycloid psychoses” as the “evil relatives” of “unsystematic schizophrenias”. 

Clinical experience indicates that the cycloid psychoses are pharmacologically different from both bipolar manic-depressive psychosis and the unsystematic schizophrenias. I am looking forward with interest whether the findings which indicate that the “cycloid psychoses” are “stress-induced psychoses”, could be replicated.



Franzek E, Musalek M. Advances in psychopathology, classification and diagnosis of psychosis and its clinical implications. Minerva Psichiatrica  2011; 52:171-185.

Leonhard K. Aufteilung der endogenen Psycosen. Berlin:Akademie-Verlag; 1957.

Leonhard K. Classification of Endogenous Psychoses. (Translated from the original german into English by Russell Berman). New York: Irington Publishers; 1979.

Phuhlmann B, Jabs B, Althaus G, Schmidtke A, Bartsch A, Stöber G, Beckmann H, Franzek E. Cycloid psychoses are not a part of a bipolar affective spectrum. Results of a controlled family study. Journal of Affective Disorders 2004; 83:11-19.


Thomas A. Ban
March 24, 2016